They also have been a central attraction and a stop for mainstream Hindus who seek their darsana (meeting, view) as well as spiritual guidance and blessings. He also mentions the Hindu bathing rituals at the junction of the rivers. The later Mughal Empire era texts that contain the term "Kumbha Mela" in Haridwar's context include Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh (1695–1699 CE),[53] and Chahar Gulshan (1759 CE). [92] According to Kama Maclean, the coordinators and attendees themselves state that a part of the glory of the Kumbh festival is in that "feeling of brotherhood and love" where millions peacefully gather on the river banks in harmony and a sense of shared heritage. On 28 April 2010, BBC reported an audio and a video report on Kumbh Mela, titled "Kumbh Mela 'greatest show on earth. [43], There are other references to Prayaga and river-side festivals in ancient Indian texts, including at the places where present-day Kumbh Melas are held, but the exact age of the Kumbh Mela is uncertain. [5] In Tirthayatra Parva, before the great war, the epic states "the one who observes firm [ethical] vows, having bathed at Prayaga during Magha, O best of the Bharatas, becomes spotless and reaches heaven. This is because of Jupiter's orbit of 11.86 years. [58] These monastic groups traditionally credit the Kumbh mela to the 8th-century Hindu philosopher Adi Shankara, as a part of his efforts to start monastic institutions (matha),[60] and major Hindu gatherings for philosophical discussions and debates. Reports of cholera led the officials to cancel the pilgrimage, but the pilgrims went on "passive resistance" and stated they preferred to die rather than obey the official orders. So they built a high-tech surveillance ministate", "Mauni Amavasya: Five crore pilgrims take holy dip at Kumbh till 5 pm", "Review of Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954", "Time Trends of Cholera in India : An Overview", "Five die in stampede at Hindu bathing festival", Kumbh Mela pictured from space – probably the largest human gathering in history, "India's Hindu Kumbh Mela festival begins in Allahabad", Kumbh Mela: How UP will manage one of the world's biggest religious festival, "Official Website of Kumbh Mela 2013 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh India", "CM reviews Kumbh Mela 2021 preparations", "Managing the Earth's Biggest Mass Gathering Event and WASH Conditions: Maha Kumbh Mela (India)", 10.1371/currents.dis.e8b3053f40e774e7e3fdbe1bb50a130d, India: Staying Healthy at “The Biggest Gathering on Earth”, "Sadhus astride elephants, horses at Maha Kumbh", "Short Cut to Nirvana - A Documentary about the Kumbh Mela Spiritual Festival", "Kumbh Mela 2013 – living with mahatiagi", "Why twins no longer get separated at Kumbh Mela", "Uncertified film screening at Kolkata gallery miffs CBFC", "India's Kumbh Mela Is Used as an Incubator for Smart City Startup Ideas", "Massachusetts Institute of Technology joins the pilgrims at the Kumbh Mela in Nashik, India to test out technology for our over-crowded cities", "From Waze for crowds to Uber for street food – MIT innovations at Kumbh Mela", "ISIS Has Just Warned India Of Las Vegas Type Lone-Wolf Attacks During Kumbh Mela", "Kumbh Mela 2019: ISIS issues threats of chemical attack, NDRF conducts mock drill", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kumbh_Mela&oldid=998448825, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Religious pilgrimage, rituals, social practices and festive events. Koná se čtyřikrát za dvanáct let a místo jejího konání se střídá ve čtyřech městech: v Iláhábádu, Haridváru, Udždžainu a Násiku. According to Giorgio Bonazzoli – a scholar of Sanskrit Puranas, these are anachronistic explanations, an adaptation of early legends to a later practice by a "small circle of adherents" who have sought roots of a highly popular pilgrimage and festival. The Kumbh Mela is arranged in camps that give Hindu worshipers access to the Sadhus. [39], The earliest mention of Prayag and the bathing pilgrimage is found in Rigveda Pariśiṣṭa (supplement to the Rigveda). Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela (/ˌkʊmb ˈmeɪlə/) is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. [37][38] Nor is this story found in the later era Puranas (3rd to 10th-century CE). [21] According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 60 million Hindus gathered for the Kumbh Mela in 2001. [58] These soldier-monk traditions have been a well-established feature of the Indian society, and they are prominent feature of the Kumbh melas. [28][33] Thus, Kumbh Mela means an "assembly, meet, union" around "water or nectar of immortality". [2] This "spilling" and associated Kumbh mela story is not found in the earliest mentions of the original legend of samudra manthan (churning of the ocean) such as the Vedic era texts (pre-500 BCE). This ancient northern Indian festival is a meeting of mystical minds. Large tracts of Kumbh mela lands near the Ganga-Yamuna confluence were confiscated and annexed into the government cantonment. These are in the form of Snana (bathe) ritual and in the form of Prayag Mahatmya (greatness of Prayag, historical tour guides in Sanskrit). In 1906, the Sanatan Dharm Sabha met at the Prayag Kumbh Mela and resolved to start the Banaras Hindu University in Madan Mohan Malaviya's leadership. [7] However, there is no historic literary evidence of these mass pilgrimages called "Kumbha Mela" prior to the 19th-century. These include kalagram (venues of kala, Indian arts), laser light shows, classical dance and musical performances from different parts of India, thematic gates reflecting the historic regional architectural diversity, boat rides, tourist walks to historic sites near the river, as well opportunities to visit the monastic camps to watch yoga adepts and spiritual discourses. Many then proceed to visit old Hindu temples near the site. Segundo uma fábula, os deuses e os demônios lutavam pela "kumbh" (jarra, pote), onde se encontrava o "amrit" (néctar), criado pelo "sagar manthan" (o escumar dos oceanos). [69], Baptist missionary John Chamberlain, who visited the 1824 Ardh Kumbh Mela at Haridwar, stated that a large number of visitors came there for trade. Hindufest Kumbh Mela beginnt - YouTube In der indischen Stadt Nashik hat das Kumbh Mela Festival begonnen, das größte religiöse Fest des Hinduismus. According to Dubey, as well as Macclean, the Islamic encyclopaedia Yadgar-i-Bahaduri written in 1834 Lucknow, described the Prayag festival and its sanctity to the Hindus. They provide logistical arrangements, policing, intervened and judged any disputes and collected taxes. Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela (/ ˌ k ʊ m b ˈ m eɪ l ə /) is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. The Kumbh Mela has been successfully adapted to Allahabad and has arguably become the greatest mela in modern India, even eclipsing its Hardwar namesake. The last Mahakumbh Mela at Allahabad in 2001 was the largest gatheri… [23] The festival is observed over many days, with the day of Amavasya attracting the largest number on a single day. Sadhguru explains the science and significance of one of the world’s largest spiritual gathering. Die Kumbh Mela gilt als das größte religiöse Fest des Hinduismus und der Welt. [13][14] Other places where the Magha-Mela or Makar-Mela bathing pilgrimage and fairs have been called Kumbh Mela include Kurukshetra,[15][16] Sonipat,[17] and Panauti (Nepal). [6], Maha Kumbh at Prayagrajis the largest in the world, the attendance and scale of preparation of which keeps rising with each successive celebration. In 1964, the Vishva Hindu Parishad was founded at the Haridwar Kumbh Mela. [72][73], The Kumbh Melas have been sites of tragedies. [105] After these river-side rituals, the pilgrim then takes a dip in the water, stands up, prays for a short while, then exits the river waters. Origin. [53][68] The British officials, states Dubey, raised the tax to amount greater than average monthly income and the attendance fell drastically. They attend spiritual discourses, fast and pray over the month, and these Kumbh pilgrims are called kalpavasis. [98], The Kumbh mela attracts tens of millions of pilgrims. [58] By the 18th-century, many of these had organised into one of thirteen akharas (warrior ascetic bands, monastic militia), of which ten were related to Hinduism and three related to Sikhism. [2][37], While the Kumbha Mela phrase is not found in the ancient or medieval era texts, numerous chapters and verses in Hindu texts are found about a bathing festival, the sacred junction of rivers Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati at Prayag, and pilgrimage to Prayag. Kumbh Mela has been theme for many documentaries, including Kings with Straw Mats (1998) directed by Ira Cohen, Kumbh Mela: The Greatest Show on Earth (2001) directed by Graham Day,[111] Short Cut to Nirvana: Kumbh Mela (2004) directed by Nick Day and produced by "Maurizio Benazzo",[112] Kumbh Mela: Songs of the River (2004) by Nadeem Uddin,[113] Invocation, Kumbh Mela (2008), Kumbh Mela 2013: Living with Mahatiagi (2013) by the Ukrainian Religious Studies Project Ahamot,[114] and Kumbh Mela: Walking with the Nagas (2011), Amrit: Nectar of Immortality (2012) directed by Jonas Scheu and Philipp Eyer. Algumas gotas do néctar caíram em quatro cidades na Índia: Prayagraj, Ujjain, Nasik e Haridwar, onde o Khumba Mela acontece sucessivamente a cada três anos. Em janeiro de 2013 teve início em Prayagraj mais uma edição do Khumb Mela, esperando-se cerca de 100 milhões de participantes durante os 55 dias do evento.[2]. Indian authorities had to manage 250 million festivalgoers. In order to define the actual kumbh Mela history, It is difficult to say when the Kumbh mela exactly started. Weitere Ideen zu buddhismus, spirituell, joga. Town Survey Report: Haryana, Thanesar, District Kurukshetra, Fairs and Festivals of India: Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, "Over 3 crore take holy dip in Sangam on Mauni Amavasya", "Over three crore devotees take the dip at Sangam", "Eyes in the sky. Finalmente, venceram os deuses, beberam o "amrit" e alcançaram a imortalidade. Kumbh Mela: the Greatest Festival on Earth The Kumbh Mela happens on a scale that is vast. Several Hindu rajas, Sikh rulers and Muslim Nawabs visited the fair. [52], According to James Mallinson – a scholar of Hindu yoga manuscripts and monastic institutions, bathing festivals at Prayag with large gatherings of pilgrims are attested since "at least the middle of the first millennium CE", while textual evidence exists for similar pilgrimage at other major sacred rivers since the medieval period. [41] The Mahabharata mentions a bathing pilgrimage at Prayag as a means of prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for past mistakes and guilt. [64][63], The repetitive clashes, battle-ready nature of the warrior monks, and the lucrative tax and trading opportunities at Kumbh melas in the 18th-century attracted the attention of the East India Company officials. About 110 million people,… [105] These ritual practices are punctuated by celebratory feasts where vast number of people sit in rows and share a community meal – mahaprasada – prepared by volunteers from charitable donations. [105] More elaborate ceremonies include a yajna (homa) led by a priest. This and other details such as the names of temples and bathing pools suggest that Xuanzang presented Hindu practices at Prayag in the 7th-century, from his Buddhist perspective and perhaps to "amuse his audience back in China", states Glucklich. www.simhasthujjain.in The Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred river. Historically the Kumbh Melas were also major commercial events, initiation of new recruits to the akharas, prayers and community singing, spiritual discussions, education and a spectacle. [72] The British officials in co-operation with the native police also made attempts to improve the infrastructure, movement of pilgrims to avoid a stampede, detect sickness, and the sanitary conditions at the Melas. The British media reported these pilgrim assemblies and protests at the later Kumbh Mela as strangely "hostile" and with "disbelief", states Maclean. In this film, two characters search for the tenth avatar and the final avtar of Lord Vishnu – Kalki, in the lines of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. Jupiter in Aries, Sun and Moon in Capricorn; Jupiter in Leo and Sun in Aries; or Jupiter, Sun, and Moon in Libra on Kartik Amavasya, 3 Sikh akharas: Bara Panchayati Udasins, Chota Panchayati Udasins, and Nirmal, The Purna Kumbh Mela (sometimes just called. [54] The Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh also mentions an annual bathing pilgrimage festival in Prayagraj, but it does not call it Kumbh. 30/30 Kumbh Mela, maior festival religioso do mundo que atrai milhões de devotos hindus ao Sangam, local de encontro dos rios sagrados Ganges, Yamuna e Saraswati onde segundo a crença, os devotos devem se banhar para alcançar a purificação dos pecados (Ahmad Masood/Reuters/VEJA) After 1947, the state governments have taken over this role and provide the infrastructure for the Kumbh mela in their respective states. [82] Kumbh Melas have also been one of the hubs for the Hindutva movement and politics. It is the world’s largest religious gathering. [77] The various Kumbh melas, in the 19th- and 20th-century witnessed sporadic stampedes, each tragedy leading to changes in how the flow of pilgrims to and from the river and ghats was managed. [85], In 2007, 70 million pilgrims attended the 45-day long Ardha Kumbh Mela at Prayagraj, estimates the local administration. [101], Bathing, or a dip in the river waters, with a prayer, is the central ritual of the Kumbh Melas for all pilgrims. This allows members of the Hindu public to interact with the Sadhus and to take "darshan." [109], The festival site is strictly vegetarian[109] by tradition, as violence against animals is considered unacceptable. Cada ciclo de doze anos inclui o Maha Kumbha Mela (maha = maior) em Prayagraj, onde milhões de devotos hindus se reúnem para se banhar no Sangam, local de encontro dos rios sagrados Ganges, Yamuna e Saraswati para se purificar, naquele que é o maior festival religioso do mundo. It dates from the early centuries CE, given it has been mentioned in several early Puranas. He goes to a saint, who advises him to go on a pilgrimage to Prayag and bathe in river Ganges as a means of penance. [67], The Kumbh melas of the past, albeit with different regional names, attracted large attendance and have been religiously significant to the Hindus for centuries. [70] According to an 1858 account of the Haridwar Kumbh Mela by the British civil servant Robert Montgomery Martin, the visitors at the fair included people from a number of races and clime. [86] In 2001, IKONOS satellite images confirmed a very large human gathering,[87][88] with officials estimating 70 million people over the festival,[88] including more than 40 million on the busiest single day according to BBC News. From April-May 2016, millions will gather in Ujjain for the Simhastha Kumbha Mela. [53] The latter Akbar-era Persian text calls Prayag (spells it Priyag) the "king of shrines" for the Hindus, and mentions that it is considered particularly holy in the Hindu month of Magha. For example, the colonial era Imperial Gazetteer of India reported that between 2 and 2.5 million pilgrims attended the Kumbh mela in 1796 and 1808, then added these numbers may be exaggerations. Kumbh Mela is the biggest Hinduism fair and a spiritual congregation held every 12 years in four Holy cities Prayag (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain and Tryambakeshwar-Nashik in India. [52] An early account of the Haridwar Kumbh Mela was published by Captain Thomas Hardwicke in 1796 CE. On amavasya – one of the three key bathing dates, over 5 million attended the 1954 Kumbh, about 10 million attended the 1977 Kumbh while the 1989 Kumbh attracted about 15 million. The Kumbh Mela in India is as mesmerizing as it is spiritual. The gods and demons fight over this pot, the "kumbh," of nectar in order to gain immortality. [6], Kumbh Mela has received extensive media coverage, with several documentaries and films based on it. Many pilgrims practice partial (one meal a day) or full vrata (day-long fasting), some abstain from elaborate meals. [115], In 2007, the National Geographic filmed and broadcast a documentary of the Prayag Kumbh Mela, named Inside Nirvana, under the direction of Karina Holden with the scholar Kama Maclean as a consultant. [55] However, the name Kumbh for these more ancient bathing pilgrimage probably dates to the mid-19th century. [100] In the case of Prayag in particular, the festival site is predominantly submerged during the monsoon months. Diane Eck (1981), India's "TÄ«rthas: "Crossings" in Sacred Geography. [84], During World War II, the colonial government banned the Kumbh Mela to conserve scarce supplies of fuel. [2], One of the key features of the Kumbh mela has been the camps and processions of the sadhus (monks). Kumbh Mela [kʊm'meɪlα:] noun a Hindu festival, held once every twelve years, at which pilgrims bathe in the Ganges and Jumna Rivers. [61], During the 17th-century, the akharas competed for ritual primacy, priority rights to who bathes first or at the most auspicious time, and prominence leading to violent conflicts. [62] At the 1796 Kumbh Mela in Haridwar, violence broke out between the Shaivites and the Udasis on logistics and camping rights. [93], For the 2019 PrayagrajKumbh Mela, the Uttar Pradesh chief minister Yogi Adityanath announced that the Ardh Kumbh Mela (organised every 6 years) will simply be known as "Kumbh Mela", and the Kumbh Mela (organised every 12 years) will be known as "Maha Kumbh Mela" ("Great Kumbh Mela"). [34][35], This Hindu legend describes the creation of a "pot of amrita (nectar of immortality)" after the forces of good and evil churn the ocean of creation. [10], Kumbh Mela at Prayagrajis celebrated approximately 3 years after Kumbh at Haridwar and 3 years before Kumbh at Nashik and Ujjain (both of which are celebrated in the same year or one year apart). While there are some religious and enchanted elements at work that emphasize Prayag's sanctity, other forces have promoted the Hardwar Kumbh Mela in Allahabad. Once these monks have taken the dip, the festival day opens for bathing by the pilgrims from far and near the site. [34] Scholars, in contrast, question these claims as none of the ancient or medieval era texts that mention the Samudra Manthan legend ever link it to a "mela" or festival. [20] Each festival attracts millions, with the largest gathering at the Prayag Kumbh Mela and the second largest at Haridwar. Sanskrit, lit. According to Macclean, the colonial records of this period on the Prayag Mela present a biased materialistic view given they were written by colonialists and missionaries. The festival management workers have only two and a half months to start and complete the construction of all temporarily infrastructure necessary for the pilgrims, making the task even more challenging. Segundo a cosmologia hindu, o rio Ganges tem origem nos céus. The 4 places of ‘Kumbh Mela’ are symbols of 4 directions. Kumbhaméla (v dévanágarí कुम्भ मेला) je hinduistická pouť, jíž se účastní obrovské množství lidí. Religion Hinduismus (GERMANY OUT) Maha Kumbh Mela (Fest) in Hardwar,Indien:Hinduistische Naga Sadhus auf dem Wegzum Ganges (zum Bad im heiligen Fluß)- 14.04.1998 (COL) (Photo by Khemka/ullstein bild via Getty Images) The 7th-century Buddhist Chinese traveller Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsang) mentions king Harsha and his capital of Prayag, which he states to be a sacred Hindu city with hundreds of "deva temples" and two Buddhist institutions. According to Baranwal et al., their 13-day field study of the 2013 Kumbh mela found that "the Mela committee and all other agencies involved in Mela management successfully supervised the event and made it convenient, efficient and safe,"[100] an assessment shared by the US-based Center for Disease Control for the Nasik Kumbh mela. [30][31][32], The word mela means "unite, join, meet, move together, assembly, junction" in Sanskrit, particularly in the context of fairs, community celebration. [85] After India's independence, the attendance rose sharply. [58], Until the East India Company rule, the Kumbh Melas (Magha Melas) were managed by these akharas. Jayant, filho de Danach kämpften in Indien einst Götter und Dämonen verbissen um einen „Kumbh“. Die Kumbh Mela in Ujjain wird Simhastha genannt. Kumbh Mela and The Sadhus,(English, Paperback, Badri Narain and Kedar Narain) Pilgrims Publishings, India. Madan Prasad Bezbaruah, Dr. Krishna Gopal, Phal S. Girota, 2003. The 10-minute audio clip warned of a 2017 Las Vegas style attacks to be carried out by lone wolf attackers. There is ample evidence in historic manuscripts[which? [citation needed], Ashish Avikunthak’s Bengali-language feature length fiction film Kalkimanthakatha (2015), was shot in the PrayagrajKumbh Mela in 2013. Large crowds gather in reverence and cheer for these procession of monks. [44], Other early accounts of the significance of Prayag to Hinduism is found in the various versions of the Prayaga Mahatmya, dated to the late 1st-millennium CE. [26][27], The Kumbha in Kumbha Mela literally means "pitcher, jar, pot" in Sanskrit. [80], According to the colonial archives, the Prayagwal community associated with the Kumbh Mela were one of those who seeded and perpetuated the resistance and 1857 rebellion to the colonial rule. The Simhastha Kumbha Mela will take place in Ujjain this year from April 22nd to May 21st, 2016, during Left: Anna Dāna event at Prayag Kumbh, feeding monks and poor; Right: A dance performance. Thousands of pilgrims in every form of transport as well as on foot marched to the pilgrimage site, dressed in colorful costumes, some without clothes, occasionally shouting "Mahadeo Bol" and "Bol, Bol" together. [44] According to some scholars, this is the earliest surviving historical account of the Kumbh Mela, which took place in present-day Prayag in 644 CE. The relative years vary between the four sites, but the cycle repeats about every 12 years. ‘Unity of Hindus’ is the main objective of the Kumbh Mela. By tradition, families and companies sponsor these anna dana (food charity) events, particularly for the monks and the poor pilgrims. [119] This received significant media coverage in Wall Street Journal,[120] BBC[121] and Guardian. [66][102][104], The bathing ritual by the pilgrims may be aided by a Prayagwal priest or maybe a simple dip that is private. This event – called shahi snan or rajyogi snan – is marked by a celebratory processional march, with banners, flags, elephants, horses and musicians along with the naked or scantily clad monks,[note 5] some smeared with bhasma (ashes). This festival is held at the Mahamaham tank (near Kaveri river) every 12 years at Kumbakonam, attracts millions of South Indian Hindus and has been described as the Tamil Kumbh Mela. According to Amna Khalid, the Kumbh Melas emerged as one of the social and political mobilisation venues and the colonial government became keen in monitoring these developments after the Indian rebellion of 1857. In the years after 1857, the Prayagwals and the Kumbh Mela pilgrim crowds carried flags with images alluding to the rebellion and the racial persecution. [68][69] This changed particularly after 1857. The ban, coupled with false rumours that Japan planned to bomb and commit genocide at the Kumbh mela site, led to sharply lower attendance at the 1942 Kumbh mela than prior decades when an estimated 2 to 4 million pilgrims gathered at each Kumbh mela. [7] The festival is one of the largest peaceful gatherings in the world, and considered as the "world's largest congregation of religious pilgrims". KUMBH : Sarvjan - Sahbhagita ka Vishalatam Amritparva with 1 Disc (Hindi, Paperback, Ramanand)Pilgrims Publishings, India, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 12:26. [2], The Kumbh Mela at Ujjain began in the 18th century, when the Maratha ruler Ranoji Shinde invited ascetics from Nashik to Ujjain for a local festival. [6], The festival is traditionally credited to the 8th-century Hindu philosopher and saint Adi Shankara, as a part of his efforts to start major Hindu gatherings for philosophical discussions and debates along with Hindu monasteries across the Indian subcontinent. For the 2019 Ardh Kumbh at Prayagraj, the preparations include a ₹42,000 million (US$590 million or €540 million) temporary city over 2,500 hectares with 122,000 temporary toilets and range of accommodation from simple dormitory tents to 5-star tents, 800 special trains by the Indian Railway, artificially intelligent video surveillance and analytics by IBM, disease surveillance, river transport management by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and an app to help the visitors. [105], Other activities at the mela include religious discussions (pravachan), devotional singing (kirtan), and religious assemblies where doctrines are debated and standardised (shastrartha). Sie erzählt von einem Kampf der Götter um den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. The Kumbh Mela authorities said that the largest one-day attendance at the Kumbh Mela was 30 million on 10 February 2013,[24][25] and 50 million on 4 February 2019. [22] It has been inscribed on the UNESCO's Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. According to Kama MacLean, the socio-political developments during the colonial era and a reaction to the Orientalism led to the rebranding and remobilisation of the ancient Magha Mela as the modern era Kumbh Mela, particularly after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. What is Kumbh mela ? After an 1820 stampede at Haridwar killed 485 people, the Company government took extensive infrastructure projects, including the construction of new ghats and road widening, to prevent further stampedes. [18], The Kumbh Melas have three dates around which the significant majority of pilgrims participate, while the festival itself lasts between one[19] to three months around these dates. [107] Its epics such as the Mahabharata describe Yudhisthira in a state full of sorrow and despair after participating in the violence of the great war that killed many. A copper plate inscription of the Maratha Peshwa claims that 12,000 ascetics died in a clash between Shaivite sanyasis and Vaishnavite bairagis at the 1789 Nashik Kumbh Mela. The phrases such as "Maha Kumbh" and "Ardh Kumbh" in the context of the ancient religious pilgrimage festivals with a different name at Prayag, Nasik and Ujjain are evidently of a more modern era. Europeans watched the crowds and few Christian missionaries distributed their religious literature at the Hardwar Mela, wrote Martin. [1][2] The festival is marked by a ritual dip in the waters, but it is also a celebration of community commerce with numerous fairs, education, religious discourses by saints, mass feedings of monks or the poor, and entertainment spectacle. A Kumbh Mela, o grande festival que ocorre ao redor do Ganges, é uma celebração da criação. [109] In 2013, the National Geographic Channel returned and filmed the Inside the Mahakumbh. Darshan focuses on the visual exchange, where there is interaction with a religious deity and the worshiper is able to visually "'drink' divine power." O Khumba Mela ou Kumbh Mela (de khumb, "pote" e mela, "festival") é o principal festival do hinduísmo, que ocorre quatro vezes a cada doze anos na Índia, rodando por quatro cidades: Prayagraj, Ujjain, Nashik e Haridwar. Seeing of the Sadhus is carefully managed and worshipers often leave tokens at their feet. People make the pilgrimage to the Kumbh Mela specifically to observe and experience both the religious and secular aspects of the event. One of the longest sections about Prayag rivers and its significance to Hindu pilgrimage is found in chapters 103–112 of the Matsya Purana. In a later day extension to the legend, the pot is spilled at four places, and that is the origin of the four Kumbha Melas. [55] Like the priests at Prayag, those at Nashik and Ujjain, competing with other places for a sacred status, may have adopted the Kumbh tradition for their pre-existing Magha melas. Hindu festival also called Kumbha Mela in Hinduism, religious festival that is celebrated four times every 12 years, the site of the observance rotating between four pilgrimage places on four sacred rivers: at Hardwar on the Ganges… en.academic.ru EN ... Kumbh Mela Hindu festival. Dieser besondere Krug enthielt den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. Tradition holds that an elixir of immortality fell on each of these sites and that the rivers turn back into the elixir at a climactic moment, giving pilgrims the chance to bathe in the essence of purity, auspiciousness, and immortality. [95], Numerous sites and fairs have been locally referred to be their Kumbh Melas. The right to be naga, or naked, is considered a sign of separation from the material world. what is Kumbha mela ? [20][59] These akharas have roots in the Hindu Naga (naked) monks tradition, who went to war without clothes. The Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh lists the following melas: an annual mela and a Kumbh Mela every 12 years at Haridwar; a mela held at Trimbak when Jupiter enters Leo (that is, once in 12 years); and an annual mela held at Prayag in Magh. Seven have belonged to the Shaivism tradition, three to Vaishnavism, two to Udasis (founded by Guru Nanak's son) and one to Nirmalas. [58] The records from the East India Company rule era report of violence between the akharas and numerous deaths. The government deployed police to gain this intelligence at the grassroots level of Kumbh Mela.